By Michael Sprackling (auth.)

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From the zeroth law it follows that each of the states XA'· YA'; XA"• YA"; ... is in thermal equilibrium with every other state- that is, the temperature of each of these states has the same value. 2a) the locus of points representing all such equilibrium states corresponding to a single value of the temperature of the system gives a curve that is called an isotherm. 2. In a similar manner it is possible to obtain a series of equilibrium states of system B, specified, respectively, by values of the coordinates X 8 ', Y8 '; X 8 ", Y8 "; X 8 "', Y8 "'; .

A. Let R be the resistance of the wire at the temperature on this resistance scale denoted by eR. The assumption that equal increments in resistance correspond to equal increments in temperature may be expressed by the equation R =a eR + b where a and b are constants. 75) 400 = 260 deg Temperature • EXERCISES I Discuss whether or not isotherms of a particular system for different temperatures can intersect. 2 Discuss what is meant by the temperature of an individual atom of a system. 3 Classify the following coordinates as intensive or extensive: pressure, volume, temperature, load, length.

3 Heat When a system is not enclosed by an adiabatic boundary, the state of the system can be changed without the performance of work. If there is no work interaction, the system and its surroundings must be in mechanical equilibrium, so that, assuming chemical equilibrium, a change of state is produced only when the system and its surroundings are not in thermal equilibrium. In Chapter 3 it was shown that this condition means that there is a finite temperature difference between the system and its surroundings.