The Emergence of Indian Nationalism: Competition and by Anil Seal

By Anil Seal

During this quantity Dr Seal analyses the social roots of the fairly stressed stirrings in the direction of political corporations of the 1870s and Eighties which caused the root of the Indian nationwide Congress. he's involved not just with the politicians, viceroys and civil servants yet with the social constitution of these components of India the place political routine have been such a lot admired on the time. The emphasis of this paintings is extra upon Indian politics than upon British coverage: the institutions in Bengal and Bombay, the genesis of the Congress and the Muslim breakaway which accentuated the political divisions in India.

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Extra resources for The Emergence of Indian Nationalism: Competition and Collaboration in the Later Nineteenth Century (Political change in modern South Asia)

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Jesudasan, A History of Tamil Literature (Calcutta, 1961). 1 During the nineteenth century the economy of India, like that of medieval Europe, was composed of regions each with its own systems of growing and getting, without unified markets or the economic uniformities which industry and urbanisation can bring. The result was vast discrepancy between the economic sophistications of the Presidency capitals and the primitive agrarianism of much of the interior; Bengal included the economic extremes of Clive Street and the jungles of the Santal country.

See SAB, 1, 53-8; 11,46, 194; 111,52, 293; iv, 46, 222, 329; v, 47, 52-5, 190, 286, 402-3; vi, 145; ix, 48. 3 igu Census, Bengal, v, 553, 571. 4 SAB, iv, 46. Cultivating Brahmins were most numerous in Burdwan. 1 However, Bengali Brahmins were not a homogeneous group. 2 In every district, moreover, there were degraded* Brahmins who had lost status for ministering to lower castes or for some other misdemeanour. Forming separate groups shunned by other Brahmins,3 they further qualified any notion of Brahmin solidarity.

In practice it was less rigid. Since the traditional fourfold division of the caste system was no more than an ideal construct, the hierarchies which it enjoined were no more than pious aspirations. 1 Lower down the scale, precise ranking was impossible, since under the general designation of Sudras came a host of sub-castes of controversial rank. With these ambiguities of status, the ordering between castes was open to pressure, to argument and to change. But the ambiguities went further than this.

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