Introduction to Petroleum Seismology by Luc T. Ikelle, Lasse Amundsen

By Luc T. Ikelle, Lasse Amundsen

Creation to Petroleum Seismology offers the fundamental theoretical and functional historical past had to take on current and destiny demanding situations of petroleum seismology, in particular these regarding seismic information acquisition and imaging and to reservoir characterization and tracking. the 1st a part of the ebook evolves from first ideas of physics to the basics of elastodynamic wave propagation, the construction blocks for seismic research. the second one half discusses smooth advancements in petroleum seismology similar to multicomponent information, a number of removal, amplitude version with offset and azimuth research and inversion, anisotropy, and linear anelasticity. elements of Fourier and wavelet representations of seismic indications and the basics of higher-order facts for studying seismic indications are also handled. The comprehensiveness of this e-book makes it an appropriate textual content for undergraduate and graduate classes that focus on geophysicists and engineers in addition to a consultant and reference paintings for researchers and execs in academia and within the petroleum undefined. The publication is illustrated with colour figures and gives quite a lot of examples and problems.

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Example text

You are faced with the problem of finding a particular book. You need a flashlight to guide you to the row and column where you can locate this book. The problem of exploration for oil and gas is quite similar. We try to see through a dark and compact earth; seismic waves are just one of the “flashlights” that help us to “see” beneath the earth’s surface. The objective of this chapter is to help you become familiar with the phenomenon of wave propagation and with the physical laws that govern propagation of seismic waves, namely the elastic-wave theory.

11). Exploring for Gas Hydrates Perhaps in this century, the earth’s stores of conventional hydrocarbons will no longer supply adequate energy. The unfamiliar but kindred hydrocarbons called gas hydrates5 may be developed enough to complement oil and conventional natural gas. Gas hydrates are a combination of two common substances — water and natural gas (methane). 13). 12. A track-mounted vibrator. 11. A diagram typical of the Arctic subsurface. ) 5 Note that natural disasters have been associated with gas hydrates.

Significant aspects of the microscopic scale are taken into account in such models, with maintenance of the use of laws of continuum mechanics, on which the present formulation of petroleum seismology is based. For economy of cost, seismic data processing has been developed for a long time from optic geometry tools instead of from wave equations; but with the evolution of computer power, this is no longer necessary. Furthermore, to achieve the high resolution in imaging, in attenuation of multiple reflections, and in P- and S-wave splitting — which is now expected from analysis of seismic data — petroleum seismologists are turning to methods based on wave equations (Chapters 9, 10, and 11).

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