By Jean Coiffier
''Numerical versions became crucial instruments in environmental technology, quite in climate forecasting and weather prediction. This e-book offers a accomplished assessment of the thoughts utilized in those fields, with emphasis at the layout of the latest numerical types of the ambience. It offers a quick heritage of numerical climate prediction and its evolution, sooner than describing many of the model equations and the way to unravel them numerically. It outlines the most components of a meteorological forecast suite, and the idea is illustrated all through with sensible examples of operational versions and parameterizations of actual tactics. This e-book is based at the author's a long time of expertise, as a scientist at Me;te;o-France and instructing university-level classes. it's a functional and obtainable textbook for graduate classes and a convenient source for researchers and execs in atmospheric physics, meteorology and climatology, in addition to the comparable disciplines of fluid dynamics, hydrology and oceanography''-- Read more...
content material: desktop generated contents observe: Foreword to the French variation; Foreword to the English version; Preface; Acknowledgements; record of symbols; 1. part a century of numerical climate prediction; 2. climate prediction equations; three. Finite alterations; four. Spectral equipment; five. the consequences of discretization; 6. Barotropic types; 7. Baroclinic version equations; eight. a few baroclinic versions; nine. actual parameterizations; 10. Operational forecasting; Appendix A. Examples of non-hydrostatic types; extra examining; References; Index.
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The system of horizontal coordinates is then defined by: x1 = λ, x2 = ϕ. Along the vertical, the results already obtained in the pressure coordinates are used and, as there is no ambiguity, the notations ∇ and ∇· now denote the gradient and the divergence on isobaric (constant pressure) surfaces. To be consistent with the thin layer approximation (r = a), the formulas for the displacements corresponding to infinitesimal variations dλ along a latitude circle and dϕ along a meridian are given by: ds1 = a cos ϕ d λ, ds2 = a d ϕ , while the pressure coordinate is used for the vertical: ds3 = dp.
With no orography), describes the change in velocity of a column of fluid together with the change in the geopotential of its free surface (the level where the pressure vanishes). 2 The simplifications and the corresponding models 23 study the motion of water in rivers. It is worth remembering that this model allows us to simulate both Rossby waves and inertia-gravity waves, just as the primitive equations do. That is why this model is often referred to as the primitive equation barotropic model.
2 The simplifications and the corresponding models s ystem of coordinates adopted. The term −2Ω × V3 represents the Coriolis acceleration resulting from the choice of a frame of reference rotating with the Earth. F, Q and M represent the source and sink terms for momentum, heat, and specific humidity, respectively. Their somewhat complicated expression depends in particular on the scale of the atmospheric motion these models are intended to describe. For an adiabatic frictionless and water vapour conserving atmosphere, these quantities are equal to zero.