Fortress-Churches of Languedoc: Architecture, Religion and by Sheila Bonde

By Sheila Bonde

Fortress-Churches of Languedoc lines the altering courting among army and non secular geographical regions as expressed in structure throughout medieval Europe. The scholarship of medieval structure has often imposed a department among army and ecclesiastical buildings. frequently, notwithstanding, medieval church buildings have been supplied with fortified enclosures, crenellations, iron-barred doorways and different parts of defence, demonstrating the powerful hyperlink among Church and nation, and the army and non secular geographical regions. In her learn of fortress-churches, Sheila Bonde makes a speciality of 3 twelfth-century monuments in southern France - Maguelone, Agde and Saint-Pon-de-Thomi?re, that are one of the earliest examples of the sort. She analyses her archaeological surveys of those constructions, and in addition re-examines their documentation, that's right here awarded either within the unique Latin and in English translations. The publication additionally explores the bigger context of fortification and authority in twelfth-century Languedoc and examines the dynamics of architectural alternate and innovation within the Mediterranean at a second of serious historic significance.

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93 Similar reuse is evident at the monasteries of Armagh, Kells, and Glendalough. In some cases new monastic foundations followed the rath plan, probably partly as the result of tradition, and partly to ensure defense. Monastic communities in France and Germany were similarly founded within castle precincts in the tenth through thirteenth centuries. In the second quarter of the eleventh century, for example, the lord of Monton donated a plot of land within the outer court of his castle to the monks of Sauxillanges (in the Auvergne region) for the foundation of their monastery.

130 There an unaisled nave is surmounted by an upper hall or chapel. A crenellated fighting platform protected by a series of breteches crowns this exceptionally economical tower-church. The late fourteenth-century castle chapel at Vez is similar to Rudelle in plan, with its two-storied elevation. 131 Vez provides an interesting example of site planning. The chapel originally projected as an eastern arm of the residential logis. This eastern arm was divided into two stories: a service undercroft and an upper chapel, with a machicolated chemin de ronde on the roof.

69 Bishops in other regions of the medieval world also took part in battle. Odo, bishop of Bayeux (1049-97) and brother of William the Conqueror, is the most renowned example of episcopal involvement in military endeavors. Odo, however, is said to have fought with a baculum, a mace designed to maim but not to shed blood. He is depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry with his special mace, urging the Norman army to success. In exceptional cases, monks might fight in defense of their church. In the early eleventh century, Bernard of Angers described a prior of Sainte-Foy at Conques who waged war against local troublemakers.

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