Field guide to geometrical optics by John E. Greivenkamp

By John E. Greivenkamp

This box consultant derives from the therapy of geometrical optics that has developed from either the undergraduate and graduate courses on the Optical Sciences middle on the college of Arizona. the advance is either rigorous and entire, and it incorporates a constant notation and signal conference. This quantity covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical method layout, approach examples, illumination, chromatic results, and an advent to aberrations. The appendices supply supplemental fabric on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and a number of other subject matters

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Porro-Abbe system (4 R) – a variation of the Porro system where the sequence of reflections is changed. Pechan-roof prism (6 R) – a roof is added to a Pechan prism. This prism is used in compact binoculars and provides a straight-through line of sight. fm Page 42 Wednesday, December 17, 2003 4:51 PM 42 Geometrical Optics Plane Parallel Plates A ray passing through a plane parallel plate is displaced but not deviated; the input and output rays are parallel. 1 – sin2 θD = t sin θ 1 – ------------------------n2 – sin2 θ –1 ------------- D ≈ tθ  n n  (in air) An image formed through a plane parallel plate is longitudinally displaced, but its magnification is unchanged.

This roof mirror can replace any flat mirror to insert an additional reflection or parity change. An equivalent plane mirror is formed at the dihedral line. All rays through the roof mirror have the same optical path. The dihedral line is often in the plane of the drawing, and the presence of a roof mirror is indicated by a “V” at the equivalent mirror or dihedral line. fm Page 39 Wednesday, December 17, 2003 4:51 PM Optical Systems 39 Prism Systems Prism systems can be considered systems of plane mirrors.

A field stop can be placed at the intermediate image plane to restrict the system FOV. This aperture serves to limit the field to a well-corrected or non-vignetted region. Reticles and graticles provide alignment and measurement fiducial marks, and they are placed in the intermediate image plane to be superimposed on the image. Since both the reticle and the image are in focus, reticles must be clean and defect free. Two special eyepiece configurations displace the field lens from the intermediate image plane.

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