Fiber Optics: Technology and Applications by Stewart D. Personick (auth.)

By Stewart D. Personick (auth.)

This ebook is an outgrowth of a path given via the writer for individuals in undefined, executive, and universities wishing to appreciate the implica­ tions of rising optical fiber know-how, and the way this expertise could be utilized to their particular info shipping and sensing approach wishes. The direction, in flip, is an outgrowth of 15 fascinating years in which the writer participated within the examine and improvement, in addition to within the program, of fiber expertise. the purpose of this e-book is to supply the reader with a operating wisdom of the parts and subsystems which make up fiber structures and of a wide selection of applied and proposed functions for fiber expertise. The booklet is directed essentially at those that will be clients, in place of builders, of the expertise. the 1st 1/2 this booklet is an outline of parts and subsys­ tems together with fibers, connectors, cables, assets, detectors, receivers, transmitters, and miscellaneous parts. The target is to familiarize the reader with the houses of those parts and subsystems to the level essential to comprehend their power functions and limitations.

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As gases flow past the torch, they ignite to form particles of pure glass (soot particles) which deposit on the walls of the tube downstream from the flame. As the flame passes over the soot particles it consolidates them into a solid clear glass. In this way layer upon layer (possibly of varying composition) of new glass can be deposited inside the tube. The inner cladding layers are deposited first, followed by what will become the fiber core. After sufficient new glass has been deposited inside the tube, the gases are shut off, the temperature of the torch is raised, and the tube collapses into a solid preform rod.

The particular material of interest for making fibers is silicon dioxide mixed with oxides of germanium, boron, phosphorus, and other elements to adjust its optical density slightly from that of pure silicon dioxide glass (silica). 1 Making Glass Preforms In the early days of optical fiber research, scientists attempted to make fibers from what were called soda-lime-silicate glasses. These socalled mixed glasses contain sodium and calcium atoms which act as glass 22 Chap. 5 % H2O 359 GLYCEROL 183 GLUCOSE 305 n - PROPANOL Co (N03) + 62% KN03 95 315 SELENIUM 303 znCI 2 373 BeF2 570 Ge0 2 800 Si0 2 1350 Figure 2-15 Materials Which Have Glassy States.

To alleviate these problems a multilayer structure is used, where the layers are made of semiconductor compounds of varying composition. For example, the active layer shown might be made of pure GaAs material while the layers on either side might be made of GaAlAs where the ratio of gallium to aluminum is 90/10. Note that the aluminum is not a small quantity dopant but is present in substantial percentage. The use of this layered "heterojunction" approach leads to some interesting results. The energy band structures of the layers are different (both the absolute levels and the band gap).

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