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Some 10- 15 years ago, when 14C dating was used almost exclusively, this condi- tion could not be fulfilled. Unverified “young” I4C ages made it possible to refer erroneously old sediments like Likhvin sediments in Karukyula and Bolshaya Kosha and very often Mikulino - Karangat - Karginski sediments to the Wurmian interpleniglacial. It has been shown by our experience that the emergence of chronological myths like those of the intra-Wurm interglacial should not be blamed on inadequacy of chronological dating methods but on the use of one particular technique only.

Excessive heat from the tropics is transferred towards the poles as warm air masses, warm sea currents and as the latent heat of water vapour condensation. This mechanism is faily well studied both by climatologists and oceanologists. It is assumed that this mechanism has been always acting though with three major variables: (a) changes of astronomical parameters, determining the short-period rhythms of climatic processes; (b) changes of the paleogeographic environment meaning the latitudinal distribution of land masses and oceans, changes of their extent, changes of the topography of the Earth's surface and oceanic currents; (c) dynamics of the atmospheric and surface ocean circulations which is believed to be of an arbitrary nature mainly determined by winds.

History of climatostratigraphic study of the Pleistocene The term Pleistocene was introduced by Lyell (1830- 1833, 1840) for the last epoch of the Tertiary, for the Age of Man, and for the deposits which contain about 90% of molluscan species still living. The Pleistocene roughly corresponds to the Diluvium established by Buckland (1823). As early as 1846 Forbes showed that in fact the recognition and division of the Pleistocene can be based only on climatostratigraphic data. He also proposed a new interpretation for the term Quaternary Period’ as the time encompassing the Glacial - Diluvial- Pleistocene Epoch and post-Glacial -Alluvial, or Holocene Epoch in the sense of Forbes.

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