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Identify the most important factors and uncertainties that are likely to affect the conclusions. Also specify which important factors or variables are being treated exogenously or fixed. 2. Document ranges and distributions in the literature, including sources of information about the key causes of uncertainty. , distinguish findings that are well established through observations and tested theory from those that are not so well established). 3. Given the nature of the uncertainties and the state of science, make an initial determination of the appropriate level of precision.
Is Str constant or does it vary as feedback mechanisms change with time? , land-use changes, surface vegetation)? The general questions that decision-makers focus on include the following: How serious is this problem? What does it mean to me in my “place”? What can I do about it? They may be seeking to evaluate vulnerability to changes in climate means and extremes, or seeking to enhance flexibility, robustness, and capacity to adapt to such changes. Finally, they may be seeking near-term response options, including possible management, institutional, technological, and legal or policy changes.
She is an associate editor for the Journal of Geophysical Research and the Journal of Climate. She was recently elected to the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution and has served on numerous committees of the National Academies. Professor Penner has ongoing research relating to improving climate models through the addition of interactive chemistry and the description of aerosols and their direct and indirect effects on the radiation balance in climate models. These models run in both a parallel computing environment and vector supercomputers.