# Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer by W. A. Gray, R. Müller and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)

By W. A. Gray, R. Müller and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)

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2 A muffle furnace is considered to be a rectangular box (Fig. 3) in which the ceiling acts as the heating surface with emissivity of 0-92. The walls and floor are refractory with an emissivity of 0-69. Calculate the net rate of heat transfer to thefloorof the furnace on the assumption that the refractory side walls effectively re-radiate all the heat incident on them. The ceiling and floor temperatures are 1200 and 600 K respectively. 4m Ceiling « surface I Sidewalls· · surface 2 Floor · surface 3 FIG.

22 ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS IN RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER Normal ♦ Sun FIG. 12. Attenuation of radiation by the Earth's atmosphere. relative path length of the atmosphere is sec(z) (Fig. 12), an approxi­ mation which is sufficiently accurate for 0 < z < 80°. At angles greater than 80°, radiation is negligible. For a surface not normal to the Sun's radiation, the incident radiation on the surface is Gt = G n cos(/). 22) If the receiving surface is horizontal, i = z. The zenith angle depends on the Sun's position in the sky relative to an observer on the surface.

10) The product AtF12 (or 12) is called the exchange area between sur­ faces 1 and 2 so that Î2=2f. 11) It is useful to express eq. 3 A furnace can be considered as a rectangular box (5 m long, 4 m wide and 3 m high) comprising three surfaces of constant temperature, the ceiling (1), walls (2) and floor (3). If Fl2 = 0-67, calculate the other view factors for this geometry. F 13 = 1 - F12 = 0-33. From symmetry: F 3 1 = F13 and F 32 = F 12 , A\F12 = A2F2U F21 = 2 0 X 0-67/54=0-248. From symmetry: F23 = F21 F22 = 1 — F23 — F21 = 1 - 2F21 = 0-504.

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