Energy: Money, Materials and Engineering

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Another type of coal conversion is direct liquefaction. The Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the HRI H-Coal,and the SRC-II processes are examples. The EDS process utilizes a catalytically hydrogenated solvent which donates hydrogen to the coal during 1iquefaction. Coal conversion operations will not have the same magnitude of solid waste disposal requirements as shale. Typically, only 15% of the raw coal remains as ash following liquefaction or gasification. Furthermore, this ash is similar to that from conventional coal combustion, so new disposal technology should not be necessary.

The remaining fraction, rich in paraffins, is an excellent feedstock for an ethylene plant. The ethylene plant shown has an annual capacity of 400,00 tonnes. Besides technical and chemical aspects, production costs as well as availaibility of brown coal are decisive factors for the realizsation of the HVB process. At present, the cost of brown coal-derived gasoline ex refinery exceeds the cost of the crude-oil-derived product by some 50 per cent. CONCLUSIONS The three processes under review will be developed to commercial maturity by operating the corresponding demonstration plants.

Table 2 shows a comparison between test results obtained with the HTW pilot plant and operational data of the atmospheric Winkler gasifier. lignite mainly due·to the dust being recirculated. In addition, the specific synthesis gas efficiency in CO + H 2 2 per m of reactor cross-section and per hour was more than doubled by elevating the pressure to 10 bar. An additional way of roughly assessing the gasifier efficiency is to examine the solids flows from gasifier to cyclone 1, from cyclone 1 to cyclone 2, as well as the residual dust content in the raw gas following both cyclones.

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