By Stephen Sennott
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of twentieth century architecture, Vol.1 (A-F)
C. L’INNOVATION DEPARTMENT STORE, BRUSSELS LISBON, PORTUGAL LISBON WORLD EXPOSITION LONDON LOOS, ADOLF (Austria) LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA LOVELL HEALTH HOUSE, LOS ANGELES LU YANZHI (China) LUBETKIN AND TECTON (England) LUTYENS, SIR EDWIN LANDSEER (England) LYNCH, KEVIN (United States) M MACKINTOSH, CHARLES RENNIE (Scotland) MAIDAN MAILLART, ROBERT (Switzerland) MAISON DE VERRE Paris, France MAKI, FUMIHIKO (Japan) MALAGUEIRA QUARTER, ÉVORA, PORTUGAL MALLET-STEVENS, ROBERT (France) MANTEOLA, SÁNCHEZ GÓMEZ, SANTOS, SOLSONA, VIÑOLY (Argentina) MARKELIUS, SVEN (Sweden) MASONRY-BEARING WALL MAY, ERNST (Germany) MAYBECK, BERNARD R.
United States) Tafuri, Manfredo (Italy) Von Moos, Stanislaus (Switzerland) Zevi, Bruno (Italy) Influential Projects (unbuilt) Broadacre City (1934–35) Cité Industrielle, Une (1901–04) Città Nuova (1914) Contemporary City for Three Million Inhabitants Dom-ino Houses (1914–15) Glass Skyscraper (1920–21) Monument to the Third International (1920) Palace of the Soviets Competition (1931) Ville Radieuse (c. 1930) Voisin Plan for Paris Materials and Building Technology Acoustics Aluminum Brick Catalan (Guastavino) Vaults Climate Concrete Concrete-Shell Structure Curtain-Wall System Demolition Earthen Building Elevator Engineered Lumber Escalator Glass Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) House Lighting Masonry-Bearing Wall Ornament Plastics Plate Glass Precast Concrete Prefabrication Reinforced Concrete Solar Architecture (Passive) Space Frame Steel Steel-Frame Construction Stone Structural Systems Tensioned Membrane Structure Terra Cotta Terrazzo Timber Frame Truss Systems Wood Planning Automobile Campus Planning City Beautiful Movement Edge City Factory/Industrial Town Planning Favela Garden City Movement Greenbelts and Greenbelt Towns Levittown New Towns Movement New Urbanism Ordinances: Design Ordinances: Zoning Parkways Plan of Canberra Plan of Chicago Plan of New Delhi Regional Planning Roadway Systems Suburban Planning Transportation Planning Urban Planning Urban Renewal Utopian Planning Schools and Movements Amsterdam School Archigram Arts and Crafts Movement Bauhaus Chicago School Deutscher Werkbund Glasgow School Nihon Kosaku Bunka Renmai (Japanese Werkbund) Metabolists Prairie School Sarasota School Vienna Secession Stylistic and Theoretical Terms Abstraction Art Deco Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) Avant-Garde Brutalism Classicism Color Constructivism Contextualism Craftsman Style Cubism Deconstructivism De Stijl Egyptian Revival Expressionism Fascist Architecture Feminist Theory Feng Shui Futurism Historicism International Style Modernism Neo-rationalism Postmodernism Primitivism Rationalism Regionalism Representation Structuralism Supermodernism Symbolism Tectonics Typology Vernacular Architecture A AALTO, ALVAR 1898–1976 Architect, Finland Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto, whose architecture is often described as organic and close to nature, is regarded as one of the most significant architects of the 20th century.
Characteristic of this period is his interest in natural materials, such as wood, brick, and grass roofs, as he demonstrated in one of his masterpieces, the Villa Mairea (1939) in Noormarkku. The villa is often praised for its harmonious relationship with nature and reference to old Finnish farmsteads. However, Finnish critics did not originally recognize Aalto’s buildings as particularly Finnish but, rather, as Le Corbusiersian with Japanese touches. Gustaf Strengell noted that the interiors of the Viipuri Library exhibited strikingly Japanese characteristics in their use of light wood in its natural state.