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The total reactance (XT) of an AC circuit may be found by subtracting the smallest reactance (XL or XC) from the largest reactance. The impedance of a series AC circuit is determined by using the preceding formula, since a right triangle (called an impedance triangle) is formed by the three quantities that oppose the ﬂow of alternating current. A sample problem for ﬁnding the total impedance of a series AC circuit is shown in Figure 2-17. Impedance in Parallel AC Circuits When components are connected in parallel, the calculation of impedance becomes more complex.
In some systems the indicator is an optional part, while in others it is an essential part in the operation of the system. In the latter case, system operations and adjustments are usually critical and are dependent upon speciﬁc indicator readings. The term “operational indicator” is used to describe this application. Test indicators are also needed to determine different operating values. In this role, the indicator is only temporarily attached to the sys- 20 Electrical Power Systems Technology Figure 2-2.
This actual power is referred to as true power. Ordinarily, it is desirable to know the ratio of true power converted in a circuit into apparent power. This ratio is called the power factor and is expressed as: P pf = —— VA or P %pf = —— × 100 VA where: pf is the power factor of the circuit, P is the true power in watts, and VA is the apparent power in volt-amperes. Sample Problem: Given: a 240 volt, 60 hertz, 30 ampere electric motor is rated at 6000 Watts. Find: power factor at which the motor operates.