Earth's outer atmosphere: bordering space by Gregory Vogt

By Gregory Vogt

Vogt G.L. Earth's outer surroundings (Twenty-First Century Books, 2007)(ISBN 0761328424)

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Eyes would be damaged, and skin would develop radiation burns. The incidence of cancer and leukemia would rise rapidly. Radiation protection technology could prevent much of the damage to humans, but sunbathing would definitely be prohibited. ” The location of Earth’s north magnetic pole was first discovered in 1831. When Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen reached the pole in 1904, its location had shifted 330 miles (530 km). C H AP T E R 4 S HIELDS UP! I n spite of its next-tonothingness, Earth’s outer atmosphere is an amazingly complex place.

Fusion requires four atoms of hydrogen to make one atom of helium. The atoms have to go through three stages to complete the process. 9911 kg) of helium. 0068 kg) is turned into energy that is ultimately released by the Sun into the solar system. The fusion reaction within the Sun combines hydrogen to create helium while releasing huge amounts of energy that floods the solar system. 33 Of course, the Sun doesn’t fuse just a few pounds of hydrogen at a time. Each second, it fuses about 700 million tons (630 million metric tons) of hydrogen into about 695 million tons (630 million metric tons) of helium and huge amounts of energy.

This causes the 51 CONVECTION CURRENTS Although very slow, movements of material within Earth’s layers produce Earth’s sheltering magnetic field. molten material to cool and contract. Then it falls back down to warmer regions to be heated again. While the molten material is rising and falling, Earth is rotating. The effects of rotation and rising and falling convection currents cause a flow of molten material in the outer core. The great heat causes atoms to become ionized, and the flow of these charged particles through the inner core creates powerful electric currents.

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