By William F. Ruddiman
The new version accommodates assurance of climatological occasions and study discoveries within the seven years because the first version, most significantly the now extensively approved figuring out that people play a massive position in warming the planet. It additionally comprises alterations designed to make the fabric extra available to an introductory-level audience.
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Extra resources for Earth's Climate: Past and Future
Components of the climate system. The changes in some of these components will then further perturb climate through the action of feedbacks. Positive feedbacks produce additional climate change beyond that triggered by the factor that initiates the change (Box 1-2). For example, a decrease in the amount of heat energy sent to Earth by the Sun would allow snow and ice to spread across high-latitude regions that had not previously been covered. Because snow and ice reflect far more sunlight (heat energy) than do bare ground or open ocean water, an increase in their extent should decrease the amount of heat taken up by Earth’s surface and further cool the climate in those regions.
Studies of climate are incredibly wide-ranging. They vary according to the part of the climate system being studied, such as changes in air, water, vegetation, land surfaces, and ice. They also vary by the techniques used, including physical and chemical measurements of the properties of air, water, and ice and of life-forms fossilized in rocks; biological or botanical measurements of endless kinds of life-forms; and computer simulations to model the behavior of air, water, and vegetation. This huge diversity of studies covers a broad array of scientific disciplines.
The lighter parts of the coral bands are laid down in summer, during intervals of fast growth, and the darker layers are laid down during winter, when growth slows. Individual corals dated in this way rarely live more than a few decades or at most a few hundred years, but older records may be spliced into younger ones (as with tree rings). Correlating Records with Orbital Cycles Another way to date climate records is to use the characteristic imprint of variations in Earth’s solar orbit in a “tuning” exercise.