By E W Kimbark
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Extra resources for Direct Current Transmission
The electric potential of any single point in space then is best defined as the amount of work it necessary to do against the electric forces in bringing up to the point a particle charged with one unit of positive electricity from is a point at an infinite distance from all charges, where, by arbitrary definition, we may suppose the potential to be zero. As the simplest and most useful case, let us calculate the electric potential r from Let due to an isolated positive charge e at a distance it.
And is SOME THEOREMS OF ELECTROSTATICS II] 2<*N = N. 2* = Hence N This holds for the original surface fa (OA? also, and we establish Gauss' 2a N = fae. theorem, it 33 If the only electric charge in the field lies outside the surface, easy to see that the is total normal induction must vanish. For each of the areas pq and PQ, the product aN is the same as for a sphere drawn round as centre, and, in this case, the force at pq acts outwards from the surface while that at PQ Fi g- *6 b With acts inwards.
It is interesting to (11) for the In any system, when the charges are constant, the forces are inversely proportional to k and the substitution for air of a dielectric } of high specific inductive capacity diminishes the forces. On the other hand when the potentials are kept constant, an increase of mechanical forces between the dielectric constant increases the parts of the system. The expression in for the force between two parallel planes is used Lord Kelvin's Absolute or Trap-door Electrometer.