CPU Design: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions by Chandra Thimmannagari

By Chandra Thimmannagari

I am commemorated to put in writing the foreword for Chandra Thimmannagari’s e-book on CPU layout. Chandra’s e-book offers a realistic review of Microprocessor and excessive finish ASIC layout as practiced this day. it's a worthwhile addition to the literature on CPU layout, and is made attainable by way of Chandra’s distinct mixture of in depth hands-on CPU layout adventure at businesses comparable to AMD and solar Microsystems and a fondness for writing. Technical books with regards to CPU layout are in most cases written by means of researchers in academia or and have a tendency to select one sector, CPU architecture/Bus structure/ CMOS layout that's the strong point of the writer, and current that during nice aspect. Suchbooks are of significant price to scholars and practitioners in that quarter. despite the fact that, engineers engaged on CPU layout have to improve an realizing of parts outdoors their very own to be potent. CPU layout is a multi dimensional challenge and one dimensional optimization is usually counterproductive.

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E In figure below if CPU 1 writes ‘A’ to location ‘Y’ then all future reads of location ‘Y’ will return ‘A’ if no other processor writes to location ‘Y’ after CPU 1. Figure 33: Requirement 1 for a Coherent Memory System 2. e In figure below if CPU 1 writes ‘A’ to location ‘Y’, CPU 2 will eventually be able to read value ‘A’ from location ‘Y’ as long as there are no other writes to location ‘Y’ in between the write made by CPU 1 and the read made by CPU 2. Figure 34: Requirement 2 for a Coherent Memory System 3.

Table 11: Schemes used to Maintain Coherency Scheme Software Scheme Description This scheme generally depends on the actions of the programmer, compiler or the operating system in dealing with the coherence problem. Some of the methods used here are 1. declaring shared data as non-cacheable. 2. allowing caching of shared data and providing some special cache managing instructions for cache flush or selective invalidation in order to maintain coherence. e while coding if programmer and during compiler analysis if compiler) if we were relying on the actions of the programmer or compiler to maintain coherency.

LineZ also gets forwarded to the Unit requesting it. Architecture 27 Figure 20: Fully Associative Cache in the case of a Hit 28 CPU Design: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Figure 21: Fully Associative Cache in the case of a Miss 9. Describe a 2-Way Set Associative Cache Memory with an example? Figures 22 and 23 below shows a 2-Way Set Associative Cache Memory in the case of a Hit and a Miss. e the address to index any byte within the Main Memory). Since the size of L1Cache (L1$) is 256B and the Line size is 1B, L1Data will hold 256 lines from Main Memory and L1Tag will hold 256 Tag address where each Tag address corresponds to a Line in L1Data.

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