By Edward Waltz, Michael Bennett
This present day, greater than ever, using denial and deception (D&D) is getting used to catch up on an opponent's army superiority, to acquire or strengthen guns of mass destruction, and to violate overseas agreements and sanctions. even if the historic literature at the use of strategic deception is generally to be had, technical insurance of the topic is scattered in hard-to-find and out-of-print assets. this can be the 1st technical quantity to supply a present, finished and systematic assessment of the ideas and techniques that underlie strategic deception and, extra importantly, to supply an in-depth figuring out of counterdeception.
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Extra info for Counterdeception Principles and Applications for National Security
In this phase, several authors began investigating the basic principles of psychology and sociology and their roles in international relations and military science. The 1973 Middle East War triggered a number of analytical works; for example, Michael Handel’s Perception, Deception, and Surprise: The Case of the Yom Kippur War is widely cited and provides excellent insights into the role of preconceptions in deception. , Soviet Strategic Deception by Brian Dailey and Patrick Parker). Another major event in deception analysis occurred with the 1981 publication of Richards Heuer’s paper “Strategic Deception and Counterdeception: A Cognitive Process Approach,” which addressed the role of human cognitive shortcomings in deception.
After reviewing the role deception plays in the military doctrines of other nations and the place of surprise and deception in military theory, Whaley introduces his theory of stratagem . The major elements of this theory include: • • • The alternative goals or objectives of the deceiver; The alternative expectations of the victim; The techniques—stratagem—by which the deceiver’s goals and objectives are achieved and the victim’s expectations are manipulated. Whaley states [10, 11], “It is much more difficult to find suitable heuristic models for deception, precisely because deception is not made of concrete elements but is rather composed of intangibles that cannot be directly measured or mapped.
As we will see later in this chapter, Whaley takes the concept of simulation and dissimulation and his theory of stratagem and builds a more detailed model of deception. 2 Donald Daniel and Katherine Herbig In the early 1980s, Donald Daniel and Katherine Herbig introduced several new concepts and a simplified model of the deception process [14, 15]. They define deception as “…the deliberate misrepresentation of reality done to gain a competitive advantage” and describe deception as a concept that encompasses the subsidiary concepts of cover, lying, and artifice .