By Peter Kappeler, Carel P. van Schaik
Cooperative habit has been one of many enigmas of evolutionary conception because the days of Charles Darwin. The contributions to this publication learn the numerous features of cooperative habit in primates and people as the various world's best specialists assessment and summarize the state-of-the-art of theoretical and empirical reviews of cooperation. This publication is therefore the 1st to bridge the space among parallel study in primatology and experiences of people. Comparative as this method is, it highlights either universal rules and points of human strong point with recognize to cooperative habit.
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Extra resources for Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution
In red howler groups, males sometimes form cooperative alliances, and these partnerships often involve paternal kin. When local habitats are saturated and groups are large, single males have difficulty defending groups of females. In these situations, red howler males sometimes form coalitions. Males collectively defend females against incursions by foreign males and males jointly challenge residents for access to groups of females. Some coalitions are composed of related males, often fathers and sons (Sekulic 1983).
2002). Recent analyses of the long-term records indicate that mother-daughter dyads spend much more time together than pairs of unrelated females do (Williams et al. 2002). ) are largely solitary. There is no evidence that females form affiliative relationships with one another or establish differentiated social bonds (van Schaik & van Hooff 1996). However, at some sites, some females’ ranges overlap extensively, while other females’ ranges overlap very little. Researchers suspect that males disperse further than females, and that females who share much of their home ranges are close kin (Galdikas 1988, Watts & Pusey 1993, van Schaik & van Hooff 1996, Singleton & van Schaik 2002).
Female baboons in Amboseli groom, rest, and associate with paternal half-siblings as often as they do with maternal half-siblings, and prefer both types of siblings to non-kin (Smith et al. 2003). Similarly, in Cayo Santiago, female rhesus macaques associate and groom with maternal half-sisters at much higher rates than with paternal half-sisters, but they interact with paternal half-sisters at higher rates than with true non-kin (Widdig et al. 2001, 2002). Paternal kin discrimination does not extend to all behaviors.