By Weiming Wu
This accomplished textual content at the basics of modeling circulation and sediment delivery in rivers treats either the actual rules and numerical equipment for numerous levels of complexity. It covers 1-D, 2-D (both intensity- and width-averaged), and three-D types, in addition to the mixing and coupling of those types. the amount features a vast collection of numerical tools for open-channel flows, similar to the SIMPLE(C) algorithms on staggered and non-staggered grids, the projection approach, and the flow functionality and vorticity approach. the various labored examples illustrate numerous stipulations, reminiscent of reservoir sedimentation, channel erosion as a result of dam building, and channel widening and meandering.
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Additional info for Computational River Dynamics
By definition, the bed-material load is the sum of bed load and suspended load. So is the wash load. However, the wash load consists of fine particles that move mainly in suspension, and thus dividing it into bed load and suspended load does not make much sense in practice. 3 Properties of the water and sediment mixture Fig. 4 shows a sketch of a mixture consisting of a volume of water, Vw , and a volume of sediment, Vs . It is termed as “mixture” for short. 22) where c is the concentration by volume, and c is the concentration by weight (mass).
This concept assumes that, in analogy to the viscous stresses in Eq. 45) where νt is the turbulent or eddy viscosity; and k is the turbulent kinetic energy, defined as k = ui ui /2. In contrast to the molecular viscosity ν, the eddy viscosity νt is not a Mathematical description of flow and sediment transport 25 fluid property but strongly depends on the state of turbulence, perhaps varying largely in time and space. In most flow regions, the eddy viscosity is much larger than the molecular viscosity; thus, the latter usually is negligible.
3. The k-ε model using this set of coefficients is often called the standard k-ε turbulence model. , 1994). Many modifications of it have been suggested in the literature. Several examples are given below, and more can be found in Rodi (1993) and other references. In the standard k-ε model, the ε equation is modeled drastically and may have limitations. 7179 28 Computational River Dynamics non-equilibrium between turbulence generation and dissipation. The modiﬁed k and ε equations are still formulated as Eqs.