Computational Hydraulics by C. A. Brebbia and A. J. Ferrante (Auth.)

By C. A. Brebbia and A. J. Ferrante (Auth.)

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In this case, the water enters at low pressure and velocity at the centre and is expelled at high pressure and velocity at the perimeter. 9 Behaviour of real fluids In practice, although the idealfluidassumption is often acceptable, there are a number of effects which cause real fluids to behave differently. The more important of these effects are reviewed in what follows. 1 Turbulence In many cases, pressures and velocities fluctuate through the fluid, producing vorticity and losses of energy.

B) Energy losses. These are due to a series of complex factors, including friction, turbulence, etc. (c) Interchange of energy with the external medium. Energy inputs are normally due to external factors, such as happens with pumps. Energy can also be removed from the system as is the case in turbines. 68) where E is the added energy head. 3 Cavitation When the velocity increases, the pressure will decrease in the liquid until it is less than the vaporisation pressure. When this happens, the fluid becomes a gas or, in the case of water, it is transformed into vapour.

The fluid outside the boundary layer is relatively unaffected by the reduction of velocity close to the solid surface. The study of many problems can therefore be considered divided into two parts: (a) the boundary layer itself in which a large velocity gradient exists, giving rise to large shear stresses; (b) the fluid outside the boundary layer in which viscous forces are negligible by comparison with inertia or other forces. The type offluidflowoccurring in the boundary layer may be turbulent or laminar, depending largely on the relative values of viscosity and inertia.

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