Colosseum: Rome’s Arena of Death by Peter Connolly

By Peter Connolly

The Colosseum in Rome is without doubt one of the worlds such a lot extraordinary structures. equipped over 10 years throughout the reign of the Emperor Vespasiano in c. 72AD, at a hundred and sixty ft excessive this giant oval stadium was once domestic to the main violent and lethal spectator activities in historical past, and the making of many gladiator heroes. utilizing cutting-edge special effects, Colosseum brings the realm of old Rome to existence and indicates how and why this so much impressive of human monuments used to be equipped. New study debunks the myths perpetuated within the movie Gladiator and is helping us comprehend the character of those video games - why the chariot races of Gladiator couldn't have occurred in the Colosseum partitions, for example. the following for the 1st time, new facts finds precisely how the Colosseum used to be frequently flooded with water for the spectacle of lethal sea battles.

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In the middle of the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279), a Chinese oYcial recorded Wuxi man (five-water barbarians) in a book called Ximan Cong­ xiao. The five groups were designated variously as Miao, Yao, Liao, Ge-ling, and Ge-lao. According to this book, these five minority groups shared the same customs and language. The name Ge-lao pronounces reasonably similarly to the Dong self-identification of Gaeml, or Geml. The Dong might have been one of those language groups. They, however, have customs and language that are distinctively diVerent from those of the Miao and the Yao.

Because of the relatively less frequent contact with the Han, the southern dialect is considered closer to the original. Using Chinese characters to phonetically record the Dong language was once the only way of writing for a small number of literate Dong. The Han influence started in the Tang dynasty (618–907) when Chinese culture reached a splendid prosperity that radiated widely beyond the Han domain. indd 19 |_ 19 10/2/06 1:27:27 PM schools in Chenzhou and Huizhou (today’s Liping, Jingzhou, Tongdao, and Suining).

Since Chinese script is pictographic, however, the implication of such meanings is usually supported by the meaning of their radicals. After 1949, when the new Communist government produced its oYcial ­ definition of minority nationalities, a new character, “侗,” was ­created. 4 The Dong call themselves Gaeml. Within the variety of local dialects they are also called Jaeml and Jeml. Early English literature sometimes referred to them as Nin Kam (Beauclair 1960, 172) and Kam (Li Fangkuei 1943). With the exception of the Han, other neighboring ethnic groups refer to the Dong in a manner similar to what they call themselves: the Sui call them Kam; the Zhuang, Pu Kjam; the Gelao, Kjam; and the Miao, Ta Ku.

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