Cold War: The Essential Reference Guide by James R. Arnold, Roberta Wiener

By James R. Arnold, Roberta Wiener

Chilly struggle: the basic Reference consultant is meant to introduce scholars to the tensions among the Soviet Union and the us that ruled overseas affairs within the moment half the twentieth century. A finished assessment essay, plus separate essays at the factors and results of the clash, will offer readers with the mandatory context to appreciate the various points of this advanced era.The guide's specialist members hide the entire influential humans and pivotal occasions of the interval, encompassing the U.S., the Soviet Union, Europe, Southeast Asia, China, the center East, Latin the United States, and Africa from political, army, and cultural views. Reference entries supply worthwhile perception into the leaders and conflicts that outlined the chilly conflict, whereas different essays advertise severe pondering debatable and demanding chilly struggle issues, together with no matter if Ronald Reagan used to be liable for finishing the chilly warfare, the effect of Sputnik at the chilly struggle, and the importance of the Prague Spring.

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It ended détente and led to a reinvigorated Cold War with the United States. The war tarnished the reputation of the Red Army, badly weakened the Soviet system, and practically bankrupted the Kremlin. Russian casualties reached 50,000. Afghanistan suffered greatly, too. The nation’s infrastructure was ruined, five million Afghanis became refugees, and perhaps one million civilians were killed. This conflict had a direct impact on the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War in 1991.

In November 1957, the Soviet Union surprised the world and shocked many Americans when it launched Sputnik 1, the first manmade orbiting satellite. Sputnik 2 was launched shortly after. The Sputnik launches not only set off the space race but also demonstrated Soviet rocket technology, which was adapted to ICBMs. ICBMs quickened the pace of the nuclear arms race and drastically altered nuclear strategy. S. Congress created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The United States launched its first rocketpropelled satellite in January 1958.

In April 1988, Gorbachev agreed to a United Nations mediation proposal providing for the withdrawal of Soviet troops over a 10month period. One month later the departure of Soviet military forces, which had grown to an estimated 115,000 troops, commenced—a process that was finally completed in February 1989. Although the Soviets left Afghanistan with a procommunist regime, a team of military advisors, and substantial quantities of equipment, the nine years’ war had exacted a high toll, costing the Soviets an estimated 50,000 casualties.

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