By Charles E. Weaver (Eds.)
This booklet presents a complete and important precis of clay mineral literature that pertains to geology and geologic tactics, making it helpful either as a reference booklet for geologists and as a textual content for the specialist.
The ebook encompasses the total scope of clay-shale geology. An introductory bankruptcy offers simple historical past terminology and category. this is often by way of a comparatively lengthy bankruptcy at the constitution and composition of a number of the clay minerals. bankruptcy three presents an creation to soil formation, chemical weathering, microbial alteration and the pedogenic formation of clay minerals. Chapters four and five conceal the continental and marine delivery, and deposition of clays. either mechanisms and examples are offered, starting from biodepositional to the nepheloid layer. bankruptcy 6 reports info at the low to hot temperature formation of clay minerals from marine volcanics, and the expansion of authigenic clays in shallow marine, brackish, and evaporite environments. bankruptcy 7, Diagenesis Metamorphism, covers either burial diagenesis and the tactics happening through the conversion of shale to clay. bankruptcy eight discusses the formation of authigenic-diagenetic formation of clays in sandstones. bankruptcy nine describes the temperal distribution of clay minerals in North and South the USA, Europe, Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. The clay suites are with regards to elements akin to continental glide, tectonics, weather and surroundings. the ultimate short bankruptcy covers compaction, lithification and a few basic gains of shales.
The e-book is liberally sprinkled with x-ray styles, chemical analyses, and SEM and TEM images, as well as hundreds of thousands of examples.
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Additional info for Clays, Muds, and Shales
Rohrlich ei ul. (1969). Pellets in recent muds. 15 A for kaolinite. Recent marine 7 A minerals contain primarily Fe”, whereas the ancient varieties contain primarily Fe2+. Odin (1984) suggested they are not the same mineral. Berthierine is believed to form by the alteration of kaolinite, and perhaps other physils. in moderately reducing environments where Fe is mobilized during the early stages of diagenesis. Like glauconite, berthierine usually occurs in the form of pellets, probably fecal, or ooids with a peloidal nucleus (Bhattacharyya, 1983).
5. lijima and Matsumoto (1982). Replacing kaolinite at burial temperature 65’ to 150°C‘. Utatsu District. Japan. 6. Rohrlich ei ul. (1969). Pellets in recent muds. 15 A for kaolinite. Recent marine 7 A minerals contain primarily Fe”, whereas the ancient varieties contain primarily Fe2+. Odin (1984) suggested they are not the same mineral. Berthierine is believed to form by the alteration of kaolinite, and perhaps other physils. in moderately reducing environments where Fe is mobilized during the early stages of diagenesis.
C ) ditto in 3T htructure. From Radoslovich. 1Y60 reprinted by permission International Union of Crystallography. 39 force on K l at the top of layer B is then at 120” to that on K: at the top of layer A. If layer C also rotates relative to B (to likewise reach a more stable position), then this rotation may be either a further +120”. or else -120”. Of these, the latter results in a net force on, and displacement of, K: which is directly opposite the resultant force on K:. If assumption (3) is correct, then this is the more stable arrangement; and i t is seen that the net effect is an alternating +120” rotation between layers, as required for the 2M, structure (Fig.