Classical Probability in the Enlightenment by Lorraine Daston

By Lorraine Daston

First version - 1988. moment reprint version - 1995. "Originally... a doctoral dissertation submitted to the
Department of the historical past of technological know-how at Harvard college" - Preface.

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Petersburg, 1843); and V. I. Denisov, Lesa Rossii, ikh Eksploatatskii i Lesnaia Torgovlia (St. Petersburg, 1911). N. Shelgunov and V. Greve, Lesnaia Tekhnologiia (St. Petersburg, 1858); A. N. Popov, Lesnaia Tekhnologiia (St. Petersburg, 1871). For example, V. E. Bokov, Drevoobrabotyvaiushaia Promyshlennost’ v Permskoi Gubernoii (Perm, 1899); S. Iu. Rauner, Gornye Lesa Turkestana i Znachenie ikh dlia Vodnago Khoziaistva Kraia (St. Petersburg, 1901); Ivan Ozerov, K Voprosu o Nashikh Severnykh Lesakh (Moscow, 1911); and A.

When industrialization took off in the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century, the cities were the focus of this rapid change. They also became the locus of poverty, epidemic diseases of typhus and typhoid, and public health crises all tied to problems of inadequate clean water supply and dangerous factories. At the end of World War I, during the civil war and subsequent famine, the cities emptied of residents who sought food, fuel, and shelter elsewhere. St. Petersburg lost one-third of its inhabitants.

Still, the Imperial Academy of Sciences supported a series of extensive expeditions in the eighteenth century, and by late in the century they had established a small number of societies to support the study of fisheries, forests, water resources, and the mineral wealth of the country. Although they had to get a charter from the tsarist bureaucracy to establish these societies, these organizations were often marked by autonomy, and several of them grew quite large. A number of them embraced nature transformation projects such as those in other countries in an effort to improve communications, transport, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.

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