By David K. Lynch, Kenneth Sassen, David O'C. Starr, Graeme Stephens
Cirrus clouds are excessive, skinny, tropospheric clouds composed predominately of ice. within the final ten years, huge paintings has proven that cirrus is widespread--more universal than formerly believed--and has an important impression on weather and worldwide swap. because the subsequent iteration climate satellites are being designed, the influence of cirrus on distant sensing and the worldwide power funds has to be famous and accommodated. This booklet, the 1st to be dedicated fullyyt to cirrus clouds, captures the nation of data of cirrus and serves as a realistic instruction manual besides. every one bankruptcy is predicated on an invited evaluation speak provided at Cirrus, a gathering hosted by means of the Optical Society of the US and co-sponsored through the yankee Geophysical Union and the yankee Meteorological Society. All features of cirrus clouds are coated, an strategy that reaches into diversified fields. issues contain: the definition of cirrus, cirrus climatologies, nucleation, evolution and dissipation, mixed-phase thermodynamics, crystallinity, orientation mechanisms, dynamics, scattering, radiative move, in situ sampling, approaches that produce or impact cirrus (and vice versa), contrails, and the impact of cirrus on weather.
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Cirrus clouds are excessive, skinny, tropospheric clouds composed predominately of ice. within the final ten years, huge paintings has proven that cirrus is widespread--more universal than formerly believed--and has an important effect on weather and worldwide switch. because the subsequent iteration climate satellites are being designed, the impression of cirrus on distant sensing and the worldwide power price range has to be famous and accommodated.
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Additional info for Cirrus
The cloud model-predicted relation between initial parcel temperature and vertical distance from ice to water saturation, showing how cirrus cloud precipitation can condition the subcloud environment for subsequent altocumulus development in updrafts. A Modern Perspective 35 tical distance that a parcel must be lifted to reach water saturation, when it starts its ascent at ice saturation, as a function of initial temperature. In other words, this model assumes that a cirrus cloud precipitation shaft has penetrated dry subcloud air and evaporated (leading to ice saturation), with subsequent uplift leading to SLW cloud formation as long as heterogeneous ice nucleation is not significant.
As of March 1997 (the cutoff for the current climatological analysis), more than A Modern Perspective 21 2200 h of ruby lidar data had been collected. PARS data collection goals emphasized the afternoon and evening hours corresponding to local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar orbiting satellite overpasses and hourly GOES imagery. Normally, the goal of collecting 20 h of PARS data per month was achieved, typically in 1- to 3-h periods. 2, a cirrus data period is defined as a 10-min average of cloud layer properties obtained from 0-10 min past the hour within ±3h of the 0000 UTC Salt Lake City sounding, in order to ensure representative atmospheric state data.
Cirrus must not be confused with boundary-layer ice fogs, diamond dust, or glaciating stratus clouds. , generally submicron-sized solution droplets) derived from cloud nuclei in the upper troposphere are predominantly responsible for cirrus cloud formation. The sources for these nuclei include stratospheric and/or volcanic sulfuric acid droplets, terrestrial and marine particles lofted by thunderstorms, and perhaps in increasing numbers the human by-products of aircraft emissions and land use. Land-use emissions include the consequences of desertification and deforestation, which result in dust storms and smoke plumes from biomass burning that potentially may artificially influence the properties of cirrus even in the distant upper troposphere.