Chemistry and technology of polyols for polyurethanes by Mihail Ionescu

By Mihail Ionescu

Polyurethanes are some of the most dynamic teams of polymers, they locate use in approximately each point of recent existence, in functions similar to furnishings, bedding, seating and device panels for automobiles, shoe soles, thermoinsulation, carpet backings, packaging, adhesives, sealants, binders and as coatings.

In 2004 10.6 million a whole lot polyurethanes have been produced, in 2014 the realm creation was once with reference to 20 million plenty. within the final decade (2005-2015) very important, around the world advancements within the region of polyols for polyurethanes have been conducted, specifically for polyols from renewable assets, defined intimately during this moment variation of the book.

The major uncooked fabrics used for the construction of PU are polyols and isocyanates. the 1st of those is the topic of this quantity handbook.

Volume 1 is devoted to polyols for elastic PU (flexible foams, elastomers and so on).

Volume 2 is devoted to polyols for inflexible PU (rigid foams, wooden alternative, packaging, flotation fabrics and so on).

The e-book considers the uncooked fabrics used to construct the PU polymeric structure. It covers the chemistry and expertise of oligo-polyol fabrication, the features of a few of the oligo-polyol households and the results of the oligo-polyol constitution at the houses of the ensuing PU. It provides the main points of oligo-polyol synthesis, and explains the chemical and physico-chemical subtleties of oligo-polyol fabrication.

This publication hyperlinks information and knowledge in regards to the chemistry and know-how of oligo-polyols for PU, offering a finished review of:

  • Basic PU chemistry
  • Key oligo-polyol characteristics
  • Synthesis of the most oligo-polyol households, together with: polyether polyols, crammed polyether polyols, polyester polyols, polybutadiene polyols, acrylic polyols, polysiloxane polyols, aminic polyols
  • Polyols from renewable resources
  • Flame retardant polyols
  • Chemical restoration of polyols
  • Relationships among polyol constitution and PU properties

This ebook may be of curiosity to all experts operating with polyols for the manufacture of PU and to all researchers that might prefer to be aware of extra approximately polyol chemistry.

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Chemistry and technology of polyols for polyurethanes

Polyurethanes are the most dynamic teams of polymers, they locate use in approximately each point of recent lifestyles, in functions resembling furnishings, bedding, seating and tool panels for autos, shoe soles, thermoinsulation, carpet backings, packaging, adhesives, sealants, binders and as coatings.

Additional info for Chemistry and technology of polyols for polyurethanes

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The mixtures rich in sucrose are practically impossible to stir. The mixtures of sucrose/ glycerol (1–3/1) are easy to stir at 110–120 °C. Unfortunately, for higher ratios of sucrose/second polyol this variant of technology is impossible to apply. 5/1 (sucrose/TEOA) [9] are very stirrable mixtures, at the propoxylation temperature, and are frequently used in practice. TEOA can be replaced by diethanolamine, monoethanolamine and even by ammonia [59]. The triol is formed in situ by the reaction of ammonia or primary or secondary ethanolamines with PO.

If the liquid reaction medium does not solvate the surface of the solid polyol well, a large quantity of unreacted polyol remains at the end of the propoxylation reaction. Of course, in some variants, the solid polyols are partially solubilised, for example in water, in glycerol or in DMF. In these situations the reaction takes place without problems in the liquid-phase and, at the same time at the well solvated surface of the high mp solid polyol. Each variant for synthesis of rigid polyether polyols, based on high mp polyols, will be described in detail.

The solid polyol is suspended in a liquid polyether and is propoxylated [30, 54–56]. e) To use liquid PO or a mixture of PO–EO as a reaction medium [17, 18]. In all the previous variants for propoxylation of solid polyols one thing is very important: the second substance added must solvate the solid polyol well. The reaction between gaseous monomer and solid polyol takes place at the surface, and partially, with the solvated polyol. Liquid adducts of PO to the solid polyol are formed. These adducts are solubilised into the liquid reaction medium and, step-by-step, all the solid is transformed in liquid polyether polyols.

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