By Peter Oldham
The British military and her commonwealth Allies went to struggle in 1914 with little wisdom and adventure of creating everlasting, shell facts protecting constructions. a few masonry fortifications, equivalent to shielding blockhouses in South Africa, were equipped however the Royal Engineers of the military have been extra versed in uncomplicated transitority defenses compatible for cellular war. domestic defenses have been a restricted variety of forts round naval ports, and Martello Towers at the east coast. It was once thought of that the military was once relatively capable of protect Britain’s coasts.
The Germans, however, as with the opposite continental nations resembling France, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Poland, Austria, and so on. have been continually renewing and updating border forts for numerous centuries. that they had additionally maintained fortification and siege components in their armies, who have been skilled in designing and developing powerful shelters. either German and French armies started the struggle with a level of workmanship in what was once to turn into a static struggle with little flow. in spite of the fact that, by means of 1918 the British have been to surpass either enemy and her allies within the layout and development, with provide and logistics, of such shell facts conceal for troops and protecting positions.
This e-book offers the historical past of improvement and innovation of concrete bunkers, capsule containers, blockhouses and normal concrete structures through the First international struggle. a lot of those buildings – a few exhibiting visible symptoms of warfare harm - nonetheless exist in France and Belgium today.
All the present constructions, with photo (except for a few that are impractical, as a result of dense vegetation,) are proven inside. Many entries have modern maps displaying how they outfitted right into a shielding procedure, while for others the site may be pointed out from the textual content. GPS coordinates are given for every access, with the exception of a number of that are on inner most land and the place privateness has been requested.