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Extra info for Biology of Perceptual Systems
Recordings from superior olivary neurons, which receive information from both ears simultaneously, show that the discharge frequency of these ceils can vary over an approximately four- or fivefold range as the phase of the signal presented to one ear (relative to the other) shifts by 180 degrees. In terms of time difference, a delay in the signal to one ear of approximately 1 msec is adequate to change the firing rate of the cell by perhaps five times, and a delay of 50 or 100 μsec is adequate to cause a noticeable change in frequency.
Purkinje cells offer perhaps the best example of an instance where activation of a single incoming axon produces a profound effect on the neuron's behavior (see Eccles, Ito, & Szentägothai, 1967). As a rule, each olivary neuron makes synaptic contact with only one cerebellar Purkinje cell, and, as indicated previously each discharge of the olivary neuron causes a rapid burst of action potentials to reach the synapses on a Purkinje cell. * The encoding scheme indicated here does, in fact, cause some filtering of the encoded signals, but this may be neglected for present purposes.
The localization and analysis of the responses to vibration from the isolated elasmobranch labyrinth. A contribution to the problem of the evolution of hearing in vertebrates. Journal of Physiology (London), 1951, 114, 471-489. Mason, A. A. Hypnotism for medical and dental practitioners. London: Seeker & Warburg, 1960. Melzack, R. Effects of early experience on behaviour: Experimental and conceptual considerations. In P. H. Hoch & J. ), Psychopathology of Perception. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1965.