Beyond the Visible and the Material: The Amerindianization by Laura M. Rival, Neil L. Whitehead

By Laura M. Rival, Neil L. Whitehead

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In Spain, jurists established guidelines to be met by those communities that would become cities. ”10 While these codes were not published until after cities like Lima were founded, they became important guidelines for their future shaping and consolidation. In the Indies, cities became important focal points of Spanish rule, the settlement, and the civilizing of new imperial territory. 11 The Provisión also permitted cities to move to new locations when the initial site proved inadequate because of vulnerability to attack or susceptibility to ill health.

Following what was understood to be Roman practice and as is illustrated by the case of Mexico City, “head cities” or new imperial centers of civilization in newly conquered lands were built literally on top of the ruins of the former center of the conquered realm. These sites could provide the conquerors with a genealogical and physical continuity that was of significant use in legitimating kingly rule over conquered lands and peoples and before other European courts and readers. ” Although Cuzco appears to have been initially founded by Francisco Pizarro (before Lima) as the likely hereditary center of a Spanish imperial rule over the entire continent, the civil unrest and rebellions against the Crown that followed upon the conquest would contribute to its decision to favor loyal Lima over the former—and at times rebellious—Inca center at Cuzco (which was moreover claimed by Almagro and became the battleground of a war that included Inca elites).

De la Cueva also financed many shipbuilders who not only bought iron, nails, tar, and wax for their ships in Lima but also secured credit in currency for the payment of salaries and other expenses in the building process. The products he trafficked were very diverse and included soles from Panama, tar, tobacco, and cochineal from Nicaragua, Guatemala, and Sonsonate, silks from Mexico, soaps from the valleys of Lima, wines from Ica, buckram and coal from Casma and Huarmey, salt from Huacho, cacao, different woods, cane, textiles from Quito, and so on.

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