By Klaus E. Grossmann PhD, Karin Grossmann PhD, Everett Waters PhD
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Extra resources for Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies
It is not clear, however, why he regarded semantic, but not episodic, memory as involved in the construction of internal working models. While not quarreling with the defensive phenomena Bowlby described, I suggest that his proposals based on Tulving’s (1972) memory research The Internal Working Model Construct 21 should be revisited in light of current thinking. Memory theorists are not unanimous over how to differentiate between episodic and semantic memory because semantic memory seems to be necessary to generate and store episodic memories.
I nevertheless have strong reservations about treating ASCT ratings and classifications as equivalent to observational attachment measures. First, concordances or correlations of the two types of assessment, though significant, are not sufficiently high to justify this. Second, unlike interviews about remembered relationship experiences, attachment story completion tasks do not require the child to represent actual life events. Whereas children’s responses to the ASCT do include memories of actual experiences, they also contain accounts of what seem to be feared and hoped-for episodes that are quite unrealistic.
205; see also p. 23) 20 ATTACHMENT FROM INFANCY TO ADULTHOOD In previous discussions, I have described defensive exclusion (Bowlby, 1973, 1980) as an all-or-nothing process, but this was an oversimplification of what Bowlby actually claimed. Rather, he proposed that the dominance of the more readily accessible (conscious) working models over the defensively excluded models should not be considered as absolute. Fragments of contradictory nonconscious or partially conscious subordinate model(s) may leak into awareness, and activate fragments of attachment behavior, and associated moods, or dreams.