Atmospheric Dynamics by Mankin Mak

By Mankin Mak

Mankin Mak's textbook offers a self-contained direction on atmospheric dynamics. the 1st part is appropriate for senior undergraduates, and develops the actual, dynamical and mathematical suggestions on the primary point. the second one half the booklet is geared toward extra complex scholars who're already acquainted with the fundamentals. The contents were built from a long time of the author's instructing on the college of Illinois. Discussions are supplemented with schematics, climate maps and statistical plots of the atmospheric common stream. scholars frequently locate the relationship among theoretical dynamics and atmospheric commentary a bit of tenuous, and this ebook demonstrates a powerful connection among the major dynamics and genuine observations. This textbook is a useful asset for classes in atmospheric dynamics for complex scholars and researchers in atmospheric technology, ocean technology, climate forecasting, environmental technology, and utilized arithmetic. a few heritage in arithmetic, physics and simple atmospheric technology is believed.

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The thermodynamic variables would be interrelated by the so-called Maxwell’s relations. A full discussion of Maxwell’s relations can be found in standard physics textbooks on thermodynamics. In analyzing the dynamics of atmospheric disturbances, we assume the air parcels to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. By that we mean the thermodynamic properties of any air parcel change continuously in time from one state of thermodynamic equilibrium to another state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Other concepts of thermodynamics that we need to invoke in atmospheric analyses will be introduced in conjunction with the laws of thermodynamics in the following sections.

We call the force at an interface a “stress” acting on one parcel by the other parcel. The component of this stress in the direction normal to the surface is called “pressure” which has the dimension of force per unit area. Let us consider such stress on all surfaces of a fluid parcel in the shape of a cube (Fig. 8). We simply sum over all such stresses to get the net force on this fluid parcel. Mass of this fluid parcel ¼  x y z: @p Pressure on surface A pA ¼ pB þ x: @x @p Net force on surfaces A and B in the x-direction ¼ ðpB À pA Þy z ¼ À x y z: @x @p @p Similarly, such force in the y- and z-direction are À x y z and À x y z.

The degree of disorder in each case is measured with a concept called entropy, S. The entropy of a thermodynamic system may change due to two distinctly different categories of mechanisms: one external and one internal. The external mechanism is associated with an exchange of heat with the surrounding of the system. The internal mechanism stems from irreversible adiabatic process(es), viz. DS ¼ ðDS Þext þðDS Þint ; DQ ; ðDS Þext ¼ T ð1:44Þ where T is the temperature of the system when the exchange of heat, DQ, takes place.

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