Astrophysical techniques by Kitchin, Christopher R

By Kitchin, Christopher R

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For purposes of comparison, D* is generally the most useful parameter. For photomultipliers in the visible region it is around 1015 to 1016. 2 Criteria for Assessment and Comparison of Detectors QE (quantum efficiency) DQE (detective quantum) τ (time constant) Dark noise NEP (noise equivalent detectable power) D (detectivity) D* (normalised detectivity) Ratio of the actual number of photons that are detected to the number of incident photons. Square of the ratio of the output signal/noise ratio to the input signal/noise efficiency ratio.

Them may be found in Appendix D). 14). 16). 15. The order of appearance of an output pulse at the output electrode is directly related to the position of its originating electrode in the array. 14 Connection diagram for a three-phase CCD. 15 Voltage and output cycles for a three-phase CCD. original spatial charge pattern and hence the original optical image may easily be inferred from the time-varying output. The complete three-phase CCD is a combination of the detecting and charge transfer systems.

They rely upon the properties of a p-n junction* in a semiconductor. 21. Electrons in the conduction band of the n-type material are at a higher energy than the holes in the valence band of the p-type material. Electrons therefore diffuse across the junction and produce a potential difference across it. Equilibrium occurs when the potential difference is sufficient to halt the electron flow. The two Fermi levels are then coincident, the potential across the junction is equal to their original difference and there is a depletion zone containing neither type of charge carrier across the junction.

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