By Andrew Palmer, Ken Croasdal
There's an expanding have to build engineering buildings within the Arctic seas. The requirement is especially generated by means of the oil and fuel undefined, as a result huge reserves which are recognized to exist offshore within the Beaufort Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Barents Sea, the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Sakhalin, the Canadian Arctic, and in all likelihood in other places. constructions need to stand up to the serious environmental forces generated via sea ice, an issue that's constructing swiftly yet continues to be faraway from thoroughly understood. Underwater pipelines need to be secure opposed to ice gouging and strudel scour, but in addition must be built properly and economically. The social and human atmosphere needs to be understood and revered.
this significant booklet deliberately takes a extensive view, and vividly bills for the numerous and sometimes sophisticated interactions among the several elements. it truly is illustrated by way of case stories of tangible tasks.
Readership: execs, lecturers, and graduate scholars in civil engineering
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Extra resources for Arctic Offshore Engineering
Brackish water is unusual, and occurs only where the ocean is diluted by large volumes of river water. Locations where the sea is brackish are in the Kara Sea off the mouth of the Ob’, in the Laptev sea off the mouths of the Yenisei and the Lena, and in the northern Baltic (Wadhams ). Imagine first fresh water in a lake, uniformly at a temperature of say +6ºC, and that the air is below freezing, at say -10ºC. The surface layer of the water cools by conduction of heat from the water to the air (and to a small extent also by radiation).
Icebergs have been the subject of much research, originally stimulated by the Titanic disaster in 1912, which led to the establishment of the International Ice Patrol. Ice islands are related to icebergs, and like them are made of freshwater ice. They are broken-away fragments of ice shelves, such as the shelves around Svalbard and Axel Heiberg Island. They are not found in all Arctic seas. Large ice islands occasionally drift through the channels between the Canadian Arctic Islands, and an island grounded in 45 m of water was found 3 km away from the Panarctic Drake F76 project described in chapter 7.
Continuous fog disrupts transportation and construction, and may be psychologically discouraging. Precipitation usually falls as snow, but the depth of snow is much less than one might expect. Along the Arctic Ocean the accumulated depth is less than 250 mm, and over the Arctic as a whole it rarely reaches 750 mm. Often the snow falls in one place and is picked up by the wind and dropped somewhere else These depths are small by comparison with some inland areas such as the Finger Lakes region of NY, the European Alps, and the mountains of western Canada.