Analysis of Distance Protection by V Cook

By V Cook

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Instead, they are designed to open when there is no current in the circuit. This way, there is no need to have elaborate arc extinguish equipments. 13 Feeder with recloser. 14 Feeder with recloser and sectionalizer. 14. The figure shows a recloser (R) that is connected to feeder A and energizes loads A and B. The automatic sectionalizer (AS) energizes feeder B and load B. Assume that the recloser is set to have three shots and the sectionalizer is set to have two shots. If a permanent fault occurs in feeder B, the recloser breaks the circuit and both loads are left without power.

The jagged arrow shows the ­shortest distance along the surface of the insulation, which is longer than the actual height of the insulator. The jagged flashover distance is also known as the creepage distance. 9 Power line insulator: (a) needed distance and (b) creepage distance. 2 Substations Substations are the collection and distribution points of electrical energy. Generation substations receive energy from power plants and increase the ­voltage to the high values required by the transmission system.

All aluminum conductor (AAC): This is made of aluminum strands without any reinforcements. It is used in applications when little mechanical stress is exerted on the conductor and when the temperature is mild. The cross section of the strands in most conductors is round. However, compacted conductors have strands that are shaped as trapezoidal wires (TW) so as not to leave any voids within the conductor’s cross section. ACAR/TW means aluminum conductor alloy reinforced with trapezoidal-shaped strands.

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