An Environmental History of Russia (Studies in Environment by Paul Josephson, Nicolai Dronin, Ruben Mnatsakanian, Aleh

By Paul Josephson, Nicolai Dronin, Ruben Mnatsakanian, Aleh Cherp, Dmitry Efremenko, Vladislav Larin

The previous Soviet empire spanned 11 time zones and contained part the world's forests; monstrous deposits of oil, fuel, and coal; a variety of ores; significant rivers resembling the Volga, Don, and Angara; and broad biodiversity. those assets and animals, in addition to the folk who lived within the former Soviet Union - Slavs, Armenians, Georgians, Azeris, Kazakhs and Tajiks, indigenous Nenets and Chukchi - have been threatened via environmental degradation and huge pollutants. This environmental background of the previous Soviet Union explores the impression that kingdom financial improvement courses had at the setting. The authors give some thought to the influence of Bolshevik ideology at the institution of an in depth process of nature preserves, the impression of Stalinist practices of industrialization and collectivization on nature, and the increase of public involvement below Khrushchev and Brezhnev, and adjustments to guidelines and practices with the increase of Gorbachev and the break-up of the USSR.

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Extra resources for An Environmental History of Russia (Studies in Environment and History)

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Petersburg, 1843); and V. I. Denisov, Lesa Rossii, ikh Eksploatatskii i Lesnaia Torgovlia (St. Petersburg, 1911). N. Shelgunov and V. Greve, Lesnaia Tekhnologiia (St. Petersburg, 1858); A. N. Popov, Lesnaia Tekhnologiia (St. Petersburg, 1871). For example, V. E. Bokov, Drevoobrabotyvaiushaia Promyshlennost’ v Permskoi Gubernoii (Perm, 1899); S. Iu. Rauner, Gornye Lesa Turkestana i Znachenie ikh dlia Vodnago Khoziaistva Kraia (St. Petersburg, 1901); Ivan Ozerov, K Voprosu o Nashikh Severnykh Lesakh (Moscow, 1911); and A.

When industrialization took off in the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century, the cities were the focus of this rapid change. They also became the locus of poverty, epidemic diseases of typhus and typhoid, and public health crises all tied to problems of inadequate clean water supply and dangerous factories. At the end of World War I, during the civil war and subsequent famine, the cities emptied of residents who sought food, fuel, and shelter elsewhere. St. Petersburg lost one-third of its inhabitants.

Still, the Imperial Academy of Sciences supported a series of extensive expeditions in the eighteenth century, and by late in the century they had established a small number of societies to support the study of fisheries, forests, water resources, and the mineral wealth of the country. Although they had to get a charter from the tsarist bureaucracy to establish these societies, these organizations were often marked by autonomy, and several of them grew quite large. A number of them embraced nature transformation projects such as those in other countries in an effort to improve communications, transport, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.

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