By Robert I. Frost
The Swedish invasion of 1655, recognized to Poles ever considering the fact that because the 'Swedish deluge', provoked the political and armed forces cave in of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the second-largest nation in Europe. Robert Frost examines the explanations for Poland's fall and the behavior of the conflict through the Polish govt, and addresses the an important query of why, regardless of frequent acceptance of the shortcomings of the political process, next makes an attempt at reform failed. struggle has lengthy been noticeable as the most important to the advance of more suitable platforms of presidency in Europe in the course of the 17th century, yet reports frequently pay attention to states which replied effectively to the demanding situations. a lot could be realized from those who failed, and the paucity of English-language fabric in this very important clash signifies that After the Deluge will attract a vast viewers between historians of Poland, Germany, Scandinavia, Russia, and early sleek Europe normally.
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Extra resources for After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660
Secondly, although the kwarta was collected with reasonable success, it continued to be levied at the 1560s rate in the absence of any regular auditing procedures, despite the inflation of 29 30 W. Palucki, Drogi i bezdroza skarbowosci polskiej XVI i pierwszejpolowy XVII wieku (Wroclaw, 1974) pp. 28-9, 35, 37. , p. 203; A. Filipczak-Kocur, Skarb koronny za Zygmunta III Wazy (Opole, 1985) p. 14. 31 Most importantly, the starostas and leaseholders of royal estates in practice kept the three-fifths of the proceeds they were supposed to pay into the royal treasury; the king was unable to enforce payment of even the lesser share he was accorded by the 1574 statute.
Even when the diet was in a cooperative mood, it was no more capable than the king of ensuring that its wishes were obeyed. Lacking a large central bureaucracy, the government was dependent on the dietines to implement diet decisions. It was the imperfect control of both government and diet over these dietines which was the true source of executive weakness: through deliberate obstruction, incompetence or laziness, they frequently failed to fulfil agreed quotas: of the 2,738,000 zloties voted for Poland and the 1,220,000 for Lithuania in the autumn diet of 1627, only 50 per cent had been collected by May 1628.
L. Czescik, Sejm Warszawski w 1649-50 roku (Wroclaw, 1978) p. 77. 16 Introduction while the main contest in 1648 was between Wladyskw's two surviving brothers, John Casimir and Charles Ferdinand. It was difficult, however, for a foreign dynasty to make the easy identification of dynastic and state interests which was possible for a native, hereditary dynasty. After Sigismund Ill's deposition in 1600 from the Swedish throne he had inherited from his father in 1592, the Polish Vasas stubbornly maintained their claim to their hereditary realm.