A Short Course in Cloud Physics by M.K. Yau, R R Rogers

By M.K. Yau, R R Rogers

Covers crucial components of cloud and precipitation physics and has been widely rewritten with over 60 new illustrations and lots of new and recent references. Many present subject matters are coated resembling mesoscale meteorology, radar cloud stories and numerical cloud modelling, and subject matters from the second one version, similar to serious storms, precipitation approaches and massive scale facets of cloud physics, were revised. difficulties are incorporated as examples and to complement the text.

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For N 2 < 0, the equilibrium is unstable and the displacement grows exponentially. Obviously, the stability conditions based on N 2 are the same as those given by ao/az. T, Owing to the high value of L for water, this inequality is always satisfied in the atmosphere. Stability criteria for moist air When a saturated parcel is displaced upwards its temperature will decrease at the pseudoadiabatic rate. If the ambient lapse rate is greater than pseudoadiabatic, the displaced parcel will find itself warmer than its surroundings and will be accelerated in the direction of the displacement.

This process is indicated schematically in Fig. 2. The heavy line indicates the initial temperature profile, with To the surface temperature. Heating raises this temperature causing a superadiabatic lapse rate temporarily and convection then tends to establish a dry adiabatic lapse rate with surface temperature T 1 • Additional heating raises the temperature and increases the thickness of the mixing layer. L FIG. 2. Illustration of convective condensation level. 48 A Short Course in Cloud Physics Eventually the surface temperature reaches T2 and the total heat added by convection is proportional to the hatched area ABC.

This effect may be readily illustrated on a thermodynamic chart. Shown in Fig. 2 is a layer of 100 mb thickness before and after lifting for the three possible stability conditions. It is noteworthy that air initially stable remains so after being lifted. FIG. 2. Effect of lifting on stability of a layer of dry air. 34 A Short Course in Cloud Physics FIG. 3. Illustration of criterion for convective instability. In each case the layer between 900 and 1000 mb is lifted to 700 mb and condensation occurs throughout the layer.

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