A history of the thermometer and its use in meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton

By W. E. Knowles Middleton

This background of the thermometer contains controversy approximately its invention, the tale of alternative scales, Fahrenheit and centigrade, and the background of the sluggish medical then well known realizing of the idea that of temperature. no longer till 1800 did humans attracted to thermometers start to see basically what they have been measuring, and the impetus for bettering thermometry got here principally from examine of the weather―the liquid-in-glass thermometer turned the meteorologist's tool prior to that of the chemist or physicist. this glorious introductory learn follows the advance of indicating and recording thermometers until eventually contemporary instances, emphasizing meteorological applications.

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4 from Nielsen-Gammon (2001). March 1993 and a 24-h forecast DT map verifying at 0000 UTC 13 March 1993 from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Medium-Range Forecast (MRF) model. 5 0 gridded analyses, is the eruption of an enormous ridge and associated jet on the DT over the southeastern United States in the 24-h period ending 0000 UTC 13 March. The building ridge and intensifying jet occur poleward and eastward of a massive eruption of organized deep convection over the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (Bosart et al.

9a,b) shows that the steepening of the DT to a "vertical wall" and the descent of the DT toward the ground occurs where subsidence is maximized in the region of Q vector divergence. Further comparison of Fig. 12c with the day 7 frontogenetical function at 6 km (Fig. 10d) and the potential temperature and perturbation height at 4125 m (Fig. 6a of Rotunno et al. 1994, not shown) suggests that the DT vertical wall lies near the southern boundary of the region of intense frontogenesis due to tilting.

8 is their semigeostrophic transverse circulation solution for an upper-level jet-front system uncoupled (Fig. 8a) and coupled (Fig. 8b) to a lower-level frontal zone. Comparison of Figs. 7d with Fig. 8a and Fig. 7d with Fig. 8b shows that when the exit region of the jet-front system lies oil ' . /0 .. . : :. ~·<·"~l"; :"'~"'l"':' ~\ '4 \ 21 B OSART 2 -1t,........ .. ~... " • .. --....... - .... I ... \ .... \ .. \ "I . ,. FIG. 8. (left) Semigeostrophic solution for an upper-level jet streak exit region overlying a surface frontal zone (refer to Figs.

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