Historic Photos of the Manhattan Project

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Physicians first confronted the medical consequences of the use of nuclear weapons on August 6, 1945, when surviving medical personnel struggled to care for the massive casualties in the aftermath of the Hiroshima nuclear explosion: In a city of two hundred and forty five thousand, nearly a hundred thousand people had been killed or doomed at one blow; a hundred thousand more were hurt. Our country should reduce the amount of funding on nuclear weapons. Jessica Mathews, "Beware the 'Loose Nukes," The Washington Post 13 Oct. 1995: A13. 33.

Global Double Zero: The INF Treaty from Its Origins to

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Fetter and Kosta Tsipis, 'Catastrophic Releases of Radioactivity', Scientific American, Vol. 244, No. 4, April 1981, pp.33-39; Bennett Ramberg, Destruction of Nuclear Energy Facilities in War: the Problem and its Implications, Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts, 1980; Conrad V. Parenthetically, about these two elements and their potential for weapons diversion the Isreali authors say this: By itself the 237Np isotope is potentially a weapons grade material, although with a value of 57 ± 4 kg for its critical mass, it is not practical.

Nuclear Power and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons: Can We Have

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They have to pretend that a god gives them the right to make and use hideous weapons of mass destruction. By now it’s not China and Iran that are isolated on Iran sanctions; it’s the United States that’s isolated. The remains of the vehicle, containing 18 radioisotope thermoelectric generators, landed off the coast of Chile. 8 August 1997: While flying over the Sea of Okhotsk off the coast of Sakhalin Island, a Russian helicopter was forced to jettison a radioisotope thermoelectric generator it had been transporting.

Arms Control and Nuclear Weapons: U.S. Policies and the

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Of course we can.” “People say, ‘Once something is invented it can’t be uninvented.’ What are we talking about? Turkey's southeast declared independence. A History of the Nuclear Weapons and the Atomic Bombing in Hiroshima. 09.04.2012 · Video embedded · Nuclear weapons as instruments of peace? These are particularly important in relatively poor societies like Kazakhstan and the Pacific Islands. Gundersen had a couple of great lines; here is one: Nuclear proponents have faith that humans are smart enough to figure out how to store radioactive nuclear waste for a quarter million years.

The Iran Wars: Spy Games, Bank Battles, and the Secret Deals

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Proliferation has been opposed by many nations with and without nuclear weapons, the governments of which fear that more countries with nuclear weapons may increase the possibility of nuclear warfare. The White House put a number of restrictions on its military in hopes of preventing any sparks that could ignite a full-blown war. This article attempts to summarize this discussion and outline some of the most important scenarios of how Iraq may reconstitute its nuclear weapons program.

Preparing for Response to a Nuclear Weapon of Mass

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However, the United States had not produced very many nuclear bombs, and it is doubtful that the U. A factor in the development of MIRVs was to make complete missile defense very difficult for an enemy country. S. military satellites: two ground-based laser facilities are used to disable intelligence satellites in low Earth orbit and damage or harass sensors on those in higher orbits. "Killer" satellites are launched and will reach target satellites over the next few hours. This is a very serious problem; it is not going to go away, and it is not going to get better," 22 Fainberg said.

British Nuclear Weaponry Culture (Military Strategy and

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Russia views our Congress as weak and ineffective, hamstringing our Commander-in-Chief. , races of humans whose founding civilizations got wiped out by SOMETHING? (google "giant skeletons" - some might be hoaxes, but ALL of them?), races of humans whose initial civilization(s) got wiped out by SOMETHING? This strategy was based on the knowledge that the nuclear firepower of both the US and USSR was capable of utterly destroying the other – and that if one nation launched a nuclear attack, the other would detect it and reciprocate with a nuclear strike of similar force.

Battlefield Nuclear Weapons, Issues and Options

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These titanic forces would rip buildings apart and level everything, including reinforced concrete and steel structures. Iraq said responsibility for the planning of combat use for chemical weapons was handled at the Muthanna State Establishment by a special tactical group, but refused to provide any further information. Harold Brown, Secretary of Defense during the Carter Administration, emphasized when in office, non-nuclear threats were in fact deterred by what they interpreted to be nuclear threats.

The Rise of Nuclear Iran: How Tehran Defies the West

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The first case posits that Iraq needs to procure manufacturing equipment, build a manufacturing plant, conduct additional testing of the centrifuge design, produce uranium hexafluoride and manufacture 1,000 to 2,000 centrifuges. The B61 has three modified sub-strategic variants: the B61-3, B61-4, and B61-10. Blast and thermal injuries in many cases will far outnumber radiation injuries. So far, two nuclear weapons have been used during warfare. Btanc e\ for a 1k" 1 1 r blsist 1 1 1 1 1 1 MM \ 10" 5 1^3 2 5 DISTANCE FROM BURST (FEET) 10" Scaling for blast intensities d = d,'W 1/3 e.g. the effect which occurs for a 1 kT blast at distance of^ occurs for a lOOkT blast at distance d. c/i=1 0,000ft ^d=24,662ft. ^ 3x10"^ Distance effects of airburst 200- KTAJR BURST MUM az 0.3 o.e IS ZA 4.3 ' P» £^ 1'MT AIR BURST GZ 0& 11 2d 41 7.3 1 psi 11 ^ d = dr r \i/3 V^oy = ^0- riooo^ 1/3 V 200 = 1.7-J. = Jr ^500^ y 1/3 V 200 = 1.35-(ir y damage comparison for a 1000 kT and a 500 kT bomb using the scaling law with respect to 200 kT bomb h_ fw^ 1/3 v^y Scaling in Altitude ^ _^ often scaled _ = /^i/^ ^ _^ J^ tol/l/,= 1kT /^^ d^ Similar scaling relation for altitude dependence of blast effects.

The Nuclear Subcontinent

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At a basic level, anti-access/area-denial capabilities are conventional military systems that (a) endeavour to prevent the entry of military forces into a given theatre of operations and (b) disrupt the freedom of action of those forces if they gain entry to a certain geographic area. [28] The US Department of Defense has used the anti-access/area-denial “challenge” as a reason for the modernisation of US nuclear-capable cruise missile capability. [29] General Robin Rand, Commander of the US Air Force Global Strike Command, stated recently that the current US nuclear-capable cruise missile would be unable to survive in the present “anti-access, area-denial environment”. [30] The Pentagon sees these strategic conventional capabilities as a threat to both its ability to control and maintain escalation superiority if deterrence fails. [31] However, it is clear from some of the details released so far regarding the United States’ proposed next-generation nuclear-capable cruise missile that a significantly more capable and precise tactical nuclear weapon capability is being sought. [32] In a similar vein, US investment in credible ballistic missile defences is influencing the development of nuclear-capable cruise missiles and other tactical nuclear weapon capabilities in Russia and China.